What Is a URL?

A uniform useful resource locator (URL) is the tackle of a particular webpage or file (similar to video, picture, GIF, and so on.) on the web.

It is what you sort into your browser’s tackle bar to entry a web-based useful resource.

A URL highlighted in the browser's address bar

How Do URLs Work?

Right here’s a fast breakdown of how URLs work:

While you sort a URL into your browser’s tackle bar, you are giving your browser particular directions on the place to go on the web.

As soon as it is aware of that, the browser sends a request to an online server at that tackle. This server is a strong pc that shops the webpage or file you are making an attempt to entry.

As soon as the server processes your request, it sends again the requested useful resource (webpage, picture, video, and so on.).

Your browser then shows the contents of that useful resource on the display screen.

An illustration of a browser requesting a resource from the server, and the server sending back the resource

This interplay between your browser, the URL, and the online server is the basic course of that powers the web as we all know it.

Why Are URLs Necessary?

A URL factors your browser to the precise spot—be it a webpage or file—that you simply wish to view.

This issues as a result of there are billions of assets throughout greater than a billion web sites. 

URLs uniquely establish every one, out of your homepage to your canine’s Instagram account. And get you the place you wish to go.

This profit is on the consumer’s facet.

On the web site developer’s facet, URLs are equally essential.

Builders use URLs when dealing with an internet site’s hypertext markup language (HTML). 

They use URLs to create hyperlinks between completely different pages utilizing the anchor element (additionally known as an <a> tag). This allows you to join webpages and permits customers to navigate between them.

An URL shown in page's HTML

What’s extra, URLs additionally permit separating code into distinct information that may be linked collectively.

So all of your cascading model sheet (CSS) information, JavaScript information, and different property may be organized cleanly. The HTML simply must reference these URLs to drag every thing collectively for the ultimate webpage.

Now, let’s perceive how URLs are structured.

What Are the Completely different Components in URL Construction?

The construction of a URL breaks down into 5 distinct components. Like this:

An example URL with marked parts that read "scheme," "authority," "path," "parameters," and "anchor"


The scheme is the primary a part of the URL. It signifies the protocol for accessing the useful resource.

An URL with "http:" part marked as "scheme"

A protocol is a algorithm for a way a connection between a browser and an online server ought to be established.

Widespread schemes you may acknowledge are:


Hypertext switch protocol (HTTP) is a normal protocol for establishing a connection between a browser and an online server.

While you enter a URL with the “http” prefix, your browser sends a request to the server to retrieve the useful resource specified within the URL.

The server then responds by sending again the requested useful resource if it’s accessible.

However this connection isn’t safe. Which suggests anybody can intercept and skim the information.

An illustration showing how HTTP works, with hackers' being able to intercept data

This creates a severe safety loophole. That’s why web sites (and search engines like google) desire hypertext switch protocol safe (HTTPS) lately.


That is HTTP’s safer sibling. That provides an encryption layer to your net session.

Which means any data transferred between your browser and the server is encrypted and far tougher for outsiders to intercept. 

An illustration showing how HTTPS works, with data being encrypted

In addition to HTTPS, browsers also can deal with different schemes like file switch protocol (FTP) and mailto.

Additional studying: HTTP vs. HTTPS: Differences, Benefits, and Migration Tips

FTP & Mailto

FTP is used for transferring information between a browser and an online server.

While you enter a URL beginning with “ftp,” it initiates a connection to your FTP server. 

Then, you may handle your web site information. That means you may obtain or add any information you need.

In contrast to HTTP and HTTPS, FTP is concentrated solely on the switch of information. Not rendering webpages. And a typical FTP URL seems one thing like this:


The mailto scheme is used to create a hyperlink that opens the consumer’s e-mail shopper (Outlook, Gmail, and so on.) to ship an e-mail.

While you click on on a hyperlink with this prefix, it routinely opens your default e-mail shopper and pre-populates the recipient’s e-mail tackle to what was specified within the URL.

Clicking on the mailto scheme opens an email client and pre-populates the recipient's email address

That is handy for letting customers rapidly ship emails to contacts listed on web sites with out having to repeat and paste their e-mail addresses.

Whereas not as generally used as HTTP or HTTPS, each FTP and mailto play essential roles in particular contexts.


The authority is the second a part of a URL that comes after the “://” character sample.

An URL with "www.example.com:443" part marked as "authority"

It tells your browser the place to search out the location and who it belongs to. 

This a part of the URL consists of 4 fundamental elements:


A subdomain is a string of letters or an entire phrase that seems earlier than a URL’s first dot.

An URL with "www" part marked as "subdomain"

The most well-liked subdomain is www. It stands for world broad net, speaking that the URL is an online tackle.

Prior to now, it was widespread to make use of www. However you may omit it out of your URLs if you’d like.

It doesn’t matter whether or not you utilize it. All of it is dependent upon your private desire.


A website is the identify of an internet site. Like eBay, Expedia, or Semrush.

An URL with "example" part marked as "domain"

It’s an easy-to-remember a part of the URL.

Every area is exclusive. So everytime you sort it in, you reference a particular web site you propose to go to. 

Prime-Stage Area and Nation-Code Prime-Stage Area

The highest-level area (TLD)—additionally known as area extension—is the half that comes after the identify of your web site. Like “.com.”

An URL with ".com" part marked as "TLD"

You’ll come throughout many TLDs on the web. Right here’s a listing of 5 of the commonest ones and which sorts of internet sites use them:

  • .com: Industrial web sites
  • .org: Nonprofit organizations
  • .web: Software program and internet hosting corporations offering community providers
  • .edu: Academic establishments (universities, schools, faculties, and so on.)
  • .gov: Authorities companies and departments

Moreover, there are country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs).

ccTLDs are two-letter area extensions that point out an internet site’s affiliation with a particular nation or territory.

Examples embrace:

  • .uk for United Kingdom
  • .de for Germany
  • .cn for China
  • .ca for Canada
  • .in for India
  • .es for Spain
  • .au for Australia
  • .nz for New Zealand

Web sites use ccTLDs when their audience is predominantly primarily based in a particular nation.

Through the use of ccTLD, an internet site indicators its connection to that location. Which might help to determine belief and credibility with customers in that area.


A port is the numerical identifier that specifies a selected gateway for guiding visitors to your net server.

An URL with ":443" part marked as "port"

It’s like a door individuals move via to go to your web site.

More often than not, you do not see port numbers in URLs as a result of they’re utilizing commonplace ports. Which browsers assume by default (e.g., port 80 for HTTP and port 443 for HTTPS).


The subsequent a part of the URL is the trail. And it signifies the particular instructions to the web page (or useful resource) being requested on a website.

An URL with "resources/newpage.html" part marked as "path"

It’s like the precise route you are taking to a room in a big constructing (the area).

Usually, the trail is made up of two components:


A subfolder (additionally known as a subdirectory) is a folder or listing situated in the primary listing that homes the web page a consumer has requested.

An URL with "resources" part marked as "subfolder"

Subfolders permit web sites to prepare associated pages collectively inside the area’s general listing construction.

Like this:

An example of domain's directory structure

Right here, “weblog” and “information” are subfolders inside the primary area that each set up associated content material.

URLs for these 4 pages would look one thing like this:

  • https://www.instance.com/weblog/first-post
  • https://www.instance.com/weblog/second-post
  • https://www.instance.com/information/first-news-article
  • https://www.instance.com/information/second-news-article


A slug is the final phase of the trail that identifies a selected web page. Typically, in a human-readable format.

An URL with "newpage.html" part marked as "slug"

It helps customers perceive the place precisely they’re on the web site.


Parameters (or question strings) are an optionally available a part of a URL that comes after a query mark (?).

An URL with "?key1=value1&key2=value2" part marked as "parameters"

They modify the contents of a web page primarily based on the key and worth specified.

The secret is like a label that claims what to vary. The worth specifies the precise modification standards.

Let’s use the instance URL under to know this higher.

An URL that reads: "https://www.example.com/blog?category=fitness"

On this instance, “class” is the important thing and “health” is the worth. This parameter will apply a filter to a webpage to show solely fitness-related weblog articles.

You may add a number of parameters to a URL by separating them with an ampersand (&).

An URL that reads: "https://www.example.com/blog?category=fitness&sort=newest"

Now, there are two parameters: “class” with the worth “health” and “type” with the worth “latest.”

This is applicable a filter to a webpage to indicate weblog posts about health. And shows them from latest to oldest.

For extra details about parameters and how you can use them in your web site, learn our full information to URL parameters.


An anchor (additionally known as a fraction identifier) is the optionally available final a part of the URL that takes customers to a particular part inside a webpage. 

It comes after the quantity (#) image.

An URL with "#faq" part marked as "anchor"

Within the instance above, the browser will instantly scroll to the FAQ part of the webpage moderately than opening the webpage on the prime.

However anchors aren’t simply restricted to textual content content material.

For a video or audio file, the browser will soar on to the time specified within the anchor.

For instance, a URL like https://www.instance.com/video#t=2m30s will direct the browser to start out the video instantly on the two-minute and 30-second mark.

What Are Some URL Examples?

Now that you understand the elements URLs can embrace, let’s see how combining them can create a variety of URLs:

ftp://ftp.area.com/downloads/software program/setup.exe

All these URL codecs are legitimate. They level to distinct assets. 

And a few of them even serve distinctive features. Like file administration with the FTP protocol and e-mail communication with the mailto protocol. 

What Are the Most important Sorts Of URLs?

URLs may be categorized into differing types primarily based on their construction and goal. Listed here are some widespread sorts:

Absolute URLs

An absolute URL offers the whole net tackle to a useful resource, together with the protocol (like HTTP or HTTPS), area identify, path, and presumably different elements like parameters and anchors.

Absolute URLs are generally used when linking from one web site to a different. And when sharing hyperlinks on-line.

Listed here are some examples of absolute URLs:


Relative URLs

A relative URL solely specifies the trail. That means the listing and the slug.

One use case for relative URLs is to hyperlink between pages inside the identical web site to create internal links.

This avoids repeating the bottom area and protocol in each inner hyperlink.

Listed here are some examples of relative URLs:


URLs are additionally categorized primarily based on the particular goal they serve. So, let’s take a look at all these URLs now.

Canonical URLs

A canonical URL is the first URL for a set of duplicate URLs in your web site.

A canonical URL illustration

Duplicate URLs are pages that basically have the identical content material. 

For instance, the identical content material could possibly be accessible on:

  • https://www.instance.com/merchandise
  • https://www.instance.com/merchandise/
  • https://www.instance.com/all-products

The canonical URL could be outlined as a type of choices. Let’s say it’s https://www.instance.com/merchandise.

Specifying a canonical URL helps search engines like google determine which URL to index (retailer in its database) and present in search outcomes. (Engines like google wouldn’t intuitively know this if duplicate content material exists on completely different URLs.)

Callback URLs

A callback URL is the web page customers are routinely redirected to once they full a particular motion or process. 

For instance, when a consumer logs in to an internet site utilizing a third-party authentication service like Google, the web page they’re redirected to after efficiently authenticating with Google is the callback URL.

A callback URL illustration

Self-importance URLs

An arrogance URL is a customized URL that’s brief and simple to share in comparison with the URLs you usually see. 

Self-importance URLs are utilized in advertising and marketing campaigns or on social media to advertise a particular webpage in your web site. 

You should use URL shortener instruments like Bitly, TinyURL, and Short.io to create them.

Right here’re some examples of vainness URLs:

area.com/low cost

Tips on how to Use URLs

URLs are highly effective instruments. And you need to use them successfully when you perceive their position in several contexts, like net browsers, HTML, and different applied sciences.


Utilizing URLs in an online browser is the commonest approach individuals work together with them. Right here’s how:

  • Coming into URLs: Merely sort the URL into the tackle bar of your browser and press the “Enter” or “Return” key. The browser will then navigate to the desired webpage or useful resource.
  • Bookmarks: It can save you URLs as bookmarks in your browser for simple entry sooner or later
  • Searching historical past: Browsers hold a historical past of the URLs you’ve got visited, permitting you to simply return to beforehand seen pages


In HTML, URLs are used for:

  • Hyperlinks: URLs are utilized in anchor (<a>) tags to create hyperlinks. These hyperlinks permit customers to click on and navigate to different webpages or assets.
  • Embedding assets: URLs are used to embed pictures, movies, and different assets into webpages. As an illustration, a picture (<img>) tag may need a supply (src) attribute that comprises a URL pointing to a picture file.
  • Linking CSS and JavaScript: URLs are used to hyperlink exterior CSS information and JavaScript information to HTML paperwork, enabling you to separate of content material, model, and performance

Different Applied sciences

URLs additionally play a essential position in numerous different applied sciences. Listed here are a number of widespread makes use of:

  • Social media: URLs are used to share net content material on social media platforms. While you publish a URL, many social media websites can fetch and show a preview of the content material.
  • QR codes: QR codes can encode URLs. When scanned with a smartphone, they direct the consumer to a webpage, typically for advertising and marketing or informational functions.
  • E-mail: URLs are sometimes included in emails to direct recipients to webpages for promotional functions, consumer verification (like e-mail affirmation hyperlinks), to supply additional studying, and so on.

Tips on how to Optimize URLs for web optimization

If you need your web site URLs to indicate up in search outcomes and convey visitors to your web site, you want to give attention to search engine optimization (web optimization)

web optimization includes optimizing completely different components of your web site (together with your URLs) to rank larger in search engines like google’ natural (unpaid) search outcomes. Which seem alongside paid outcomes.

Paid vs organic results on Google SERP

Listed here are some tips about how you can optimize the construction of your URLs.

1. Use the HTTPS Protocol

Since HTTPS is safer, search engines like google like Google use it as a light-weight rating sign.

So in case your web site makes use of HTTPS, you might have a slight rating benefit over those that don’t use it.

2. Select an Acceptable TLD

For probably the most half, TLDs don’t instantly affect your rankings.

However it is best to use the one which aligns with your enterprise. For nonprofit organizations, .org is greatest.

For academic establishments, similar to universities, schools, and faculties, .edu is probably the most applicable TLD.

For industrial web sites, .com is the way in which to go.

In case you solely do enterprise outdoors the U.S., your ccTLD( like .au for Australia and .nz for New Zealand) can be advantageous.

However keep away from utilizing TLDs like .data and .biz—individuals are inclined to affiliate these with spam. So that you may need a tough time constructing high-quality backlinks to your web site. That are essential to enhance rankings.

3. Use Subfolders to Arrange Your Content material

Use subfolders that logically set up your content material and make it straightforward for customers to know the place they’re on the web site.

Which the American Lung Affiliation has achieved:

American Lung Association's subfolders

That is essential from a consumer expertise (UX) perspective. Which is intently related to web optimization.

Your subfolders ought to point out the kind of content material discovered at that URL. To assist search engines like google perceive your content material higher.

  • Good subfolder: https://web site.com/weblog/best-travel-tips/
  • Unhealthy subfolder: https://web site.com/folder1/best-travel-tips/

In case you personal a extremely giant web site—an ecommerce web site, for instance—it’d get difficult to prepare all of your pages utilizing just one degree of subfolder.

In that case, use sub-subfolders to additional outline your web site hierarchy.

Right here’s an instance of how you would have a subfolder inside one other subfolder in your web site:


4. Optimize Your URL Slugs

It’s essential to do 4 issues to optimize your URL slugs for web optimization.

Be Descriptive

Your URL slug ought to describe the web page’s content material as a result of it helps the search engine perceive what the web page is about. And rank it appropriately.

Good URL slug: /best-baby-soaps/

Unhealthy URL slug: /page1234/

One of the simplest ways to make your URL slugs descriptive is to make use of the web page’s goal key phrase (the key phrase you wish to rank for in search outcomes). 

In case you don’t know what your goal key phrase is or how you can discover one, learn our information to keyword research.

Make It Quick

Lengthy URLs are tougher for customers to learn. And search engines like google like Google typically truncate lengthy URLs in search outcomes. 

Like this:

An truncated URL on Google's SERP

So, attempt to hold your slugs to 5 phrases or fewer.

  • Good URL slug: /home-workout-tips/
  • Unhealthy URL slug: /the-7-best-home-workout-tips-the-ultimate-cheatsheet-for-training-without-a-gym/

Use Hyphens to Separate Phrases

Use hyphens to separate phrases in your URL slug as a substitute of underscores. They’re the usual approach of separating phrases in a URL.

  • Good URL slug: /free-marketing-tools/
  • Unhealthy URL slug: /free_marketing_tools/

Use Lowercase Characters

URLs are case-sensitive. And when you’ve got a selected URL in each lowercase and uppercase, it may create duplicate content points in your web site.

Plus, lowercase URLs make it simpler for customers to enter the URL accurately. 

  • Good URL slug: /how-to-make-pizza/
  • Unhealthy URL slug: /How-To-Make-Pizza/

Learn our full information to URL slugs for extra data.

Audit Your Current URLs to Establish Points

In case you’re a Semrush consumer, you need to use the Site Audit device to test whether or not your URLs are arrange accurately. And discover any points which might be current.

Create a project within the device and run a full crawl of your web site.

After the crawl is full, navigate to the “Points” tab and seek for “URL.”

"URL" entered under the “Issues” tab in Site Audit tool

The device exhibits whether or not your web site has any URL-specific points like URLs being too lengthy. Or phrases in URLs which might be separated with underscores as a substitute of hyphens.

URL issues found in Site Audit tool

The device additionally affords recommendation on how you can repair every concern.

URL issue explained and how to fix it pop-up box


To wrap issues up, let’s cowl some incessantly requested questions on URLs.

1. What Does URL Stand For?

URL stands for uniform useful resource locator. It’s the online tackle that specifies the placement of a useful resource on the web.

2. What’s the Distinction Between a URL and a URI?

A uniform useful resource identifier (URI) labels or identifies a useful resource however would not essentially let you know how you can retrieve it. 

As an illustration, isbn:0261103303 identifies the ebook with that ISBN quantity however would not point out the place or how you can get it.

A URL is a particular sort of URI that not solely identifies a useful resource, but in addition offers the technique of finding it.

For instance, https://www.example.com/page.html is a URL that tells you the useful resource is the webpage situated on instance.com’s server at /web page.html. And makes use of the HTTPS protocol to entry it.

That’s the primary distinction.

URLs at all times level to assets—URIs simply identify them.

3. Is a URL an IP Handle?

A URL is just not the identical factor as an IP tackle, which solely identifies the area identify. 

URLs embrace extra data like protocols and file paths past simply specifying the placement (area identify). 

 A number of URLs can level to the identical IP tackle. However every IP tackle can solely establish one area.

4. Are URLs Case Delicate?

The area identify portion of a URL is case insensitive, in response to Domain Name System (DNS) standards.

The case sensitivity of different elements (path, parameters, anchor, and so on.) is dependent upon your net server’s configuration. 

To be constant, deal with URLs as case delicate even when your server permits for combined circumstances. And go together with lowercase capitalization for all components of URLs. Because it’s the usual approach of making URLs.


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