The robots.txt file is among the predominant methods of telling a search engine the place it might and may’t go in your web site. All main serps help its fundamental performance, however some reply to further guidelines, which could be useful too. This information covers all of the methods to make use of robots.txt in your web site.


Any errors you make in your robots.txt can significantly hurt your web site, so learn and perceive this text earlier than diving in.

Desk of contents

What is a robots.txt file?

Crawl directives

The robots.txt file is certainly one of quite a few crawl directives. We’ve guides on all of them and also you’ll discover them here.

A robots.txt file is a plain textual content doc situated in an internet site’s root listing, serving as a set of directions to go looking engine bots. Additionally referred to as the Robots Exclusion Protocol, the robots.txt file outcomes from a consensus amongst early search engine builders. It’s not an official commonplace set by any requirements group, though all main serps adhere to it.

Robots.txt specifies which pages or sections needs to be crawled and listed and which needs to be ignored. This file helps web site house owners management the habits of search engine crawlers, permitting them to handle entry, restrict indexing to particular areas, and regulate crawling charge. Whereas it’s a public doc, compliance with its directives is voluntary, however it’s a highly effective software for guiding search engine bots and influencing the indexing course of.

A fundamental robots.txt file may look one thing like this:

Person-Agent: *


What does the robots.txt file do?


Serps sometimes cache the contents of the robots.txt in order that they don’t must hold downloading it, however will normally refresh it a number of occasions a day. That signifies that adjustments to directions are sometimes mirrored pretty shortly.

Serps uncover and index the online by crawling pages. As they crawl, they uncover and observe hyperlinks. This takes them from web site A to web site B to web site C, and so forth. However earlier than a search engine visits any web page on a website it hasn’t encountered, it is going to open that area’s robots.txt file. That lets them know which URLs on that web site they’re allowed to go to (and which of them they’re not).

Learn extra: Bot traffic: What it is and why you should care about it »

The place ought to I put my robots.txt file?

The robots.txt file ought to at all times be on the root of your area. So in case your area is, the crawler ought to discover it at

It’s additionally important that your robots.txt file is known as robots.txt. The identify is case-sensitive, so get that proper, or it gained’t work.

Yoast web optimization and robots.txt

Our plugin has wise defaults, however you possibly can at all times change issues as you see match. Yoast SEO provides a user-friendly interface to edit the robots.txt file with no need to entry it manually. With Yoast web optimization, you possibly can entry and configure the robots.txt function by the plugin’s settings. It means that you can embody or exclude particular web site areas from being crawled by serps. When utilized in conjuncture with the crawl settings,

Execs and cons of utilizing robots.txt

Professional: managing crawl price range

It’s usually understood {that a} search spider arrives at an internet site with a pre-determined “allowance” for what number of pages it is going to crawl (or how a lot useful resource/time it’ll spend, primarily based on a web site’s authority/dimension/fame, and the way effectively the server responds). SEOs name this the crawl price range.

When you suppose your web site has issues with crawl price range, blocking serps from ‘losing’ power on unimportant components of your web site may imply focusing as an alternative on the sections that matter. Use the crawl cleanup settings in Yoast SEO to assist Google crawls what issues.

It could possibly generally be useful to dam the various search engines from crawling problematic sections of your web site, particularly on websites the place a number of web optimization clean-up must be finished. When you’ve tidied issues up, you possibly can allow them to again in.

A word on blocking question parameters

One state of affairs the place crawl price range is essential is when your web site makes use of a number of question string parameters to filter or type lists. Let’s say you will have ten totally different question parameters, every with totally different values that can be utilized in any mixture (like t-shirts in a number of colours and sizes). This results in many attainable legitimate URLs, all of which could get crawled. Blocking question parameters from being crawled will assist make sure the search engine solely spiders your web site’s predominant URLs and gained’t go into the large spider trap you’d in any other case create.

Con: not eradicating a web page from search outcomes

Though you should use the robots.txt file to inform a crawler the place it might’t go in your web site, you can’t use it to say to a search engine which URLs to not present within the search outcomes – in different phrases, blocking it gained’t cease it from being listed. If the search engine finds sufficient hyperlinks to that URL, it is going to embody it; it is going to simply not know what’s on that web page. So your end result will seem like this:

Screenshot of a result for a blocked URL in the Google search results

Use a meta robots noindex tag if you wish to reliably block a web page from showing within the search outcomes. That signifies that to search out the noindex tag, the search engine has to have the ability to entry that web page, so don’t block it with robots.txt.

Noindex directives

It was once attainable so as to add ‘noindex’ directives in your robots.txt, to take away URLs from Google’s search outcomes, and to keep away from these ‘fragments’ displaying up. That is not supported (and technically, by no means was).

Con: not spreading hyperlink worth

If a search engine can’t crawl a web page, it might’t unfold the hyperlink worth throughout the hyperlinks on that web page. It’s a dead-end if you’ve blocked a web page in robots.txt. Any hyperlink worth which could have flowed to (and thru) that web page is misplaced.

Robots.txt syntax

WordPress robots.txt

We’ve an article on how finest to setup your robots.txt for WordPress. Don’t overlook you possibly can edit your web site’s robots.txt file within the Yoast web optimization Instruments → File editor part.

A robots.txt file consists of a number of blocks of directives, every beginning with a user-agent line. The “user-agent” is the identify of the precise spider it addresses. You possibly can have one block for all serps, utilizing a wildcard for the user-agent, or explicit blocks for explicit serps. A search engine spider will at all times decide the block that finest matches its identify.

These blocks seem like this (don’t be scared, we’ll clarify under):

Person-agent: * 
Disallow: /

Person-agent: Googlebot

Person-agent: bingbot
Disallow: /not-for-bing/

Directives like Permit and Disallow shouldn’t be case-sensitive, so it’s as much as you to jot down them in lowercase or capitalize them. The values are case-sensitive, so /photograph/ is just not the identical as /Picture/. We like capitalizing directives as a result of it makes the file simpler (for people) to learn.

The user-agent directive

The primary bit of each block of directives is the user-agent, which identifies a selected spider. The user-agent discipline matches with that particular spider’s (normally longer) user-agent, so, as an illustration, the commonest spider from Google has the next user-agent:

Mozilla/5.0 (suitable; Googlebot/2.1; +

If you wish to inform this crawler what to do, a comparatively easy Person-agent: Googlebot line will do the trick.

Most serps have a number of spiders. They may use a selected spider for his or her regular index, advert applications, photos, movies, and many others.

Serps at all times select probably the most particular block of directives they will discover. Say you will have three units of directives: one for *, one for Googlebot and one for Googlebot-Information. If a bot comes by whose user-agent is Googlebot-Video, it is going to observe the Googlebot restrictions. A bot with the user-agent Googlebot-Information would use extra particular Googlebot-Information directives.

The most typical person brokers for search engine spiders

Right here’s a listing of the user-agents you should use in your robots.txt file to match probably the most generally used serps:

Search engine Area Person-agent
Baidu Common baiduspider
Baidu Photos baiduspider-image
Baidu Cellular baiduspider-mobile
Baidu Information baiduspider-news
Baidu Video baiduspider-video
Bing Common bingbot
Bing Common msnbot
Bing Photos & Video msnbot-media
Bing Advertisements adidxbot
Google Common Googlebot
Google Photos Googlebot-Picture
Google Cellular Googlebot-Cellular
Google Information Googlebot-Information
Google Video Googlebot-Video
Google Ecommerce Storebot-Google
Google AdSense Mediapartners-Google
Google AdWords AdsBot-Google
Yahoo! Common slurp
Yandex Common yandex

The disallow directive

The second line in any block of directives is the Disallow line. You possibly can have a number of of those strains, specifying which components of the positioning the desired spider can’t entry. An empty Disallow line means you’re not disallowing something so {that a} spider can entry all sections of your web site.

The instance under would block all serps that “hear” to robots.txt from crawling your web site.

Person-agent: * 
Disallow: /

The instance under would enable all serps to crawl your web site by dropping a single character.

Person-agent: * 

The instance under would block Google from crawling the Picture listing in your web site – and all the pieces in it.

Person-agent: googlebot 
Disallow: /Picture

This implies all of the subdirectories of the /Picture listing would additionally not be spidered. It might not block Google from crawling the /photograph listing, as these strains are case-sensitive.

This is able to additionally block Google from accessing URLs containing /Picture, comparable to /Images/.

How one can use wildcards/common expressions

“Formally,” the robots.txt commonplace doesn’t help common expressions or wildcards; nevertheless, all main serps perceive it. This implies you should use strains like this to dam teams of recordsdata:

Disallow: /*.php 
Disallow: /copyrighted-images/*.jpg

Within the instance above, * is expanded to no matter filename it matches. Observe that the remainder of the road continues to be case-sensitive, so the second line above is not going to block a file referred to as /copyrighted-images/instance.JPG from being crawled.

Some serps, like Google, enable for extra difficult common expressions however remember that different serps may not perceive this logic. Probably the most helpful function this provides is the $, which signifies the top of a URL. Within the following instance, you possibly can see what this does:

Disallow: /*.php$

This implies /index.php can’t be listed, however /index.php?p=1 may be. After all, that is solely helpful in very particular circumstances and fairly harmful: it’s simple to unblock stuff you didn’t need to.

Non-standard robots.txt crawl directives

Along with the generally used Disallow and Person-agent directives, there are a couple of different crawl directives obtainable for robots.txt recordsdata. Nonetheless, it’s necessary to notice that not all search engine crawlers help these directives, so it’s important to know their limitations and issues earlier than implementing them.

The enable directive

Whereas not within the unique “specification,” there was early discuss of an enable directive. Most serps appear to know it, and it permits for easy and really readable directives like this:

Disallow: /wp-admin/ 
Permit: /wp-admin/admin-ajax.php

The one different manner of reaching the identical end result with out an enable directive, would have been to particularly disallow each single file within the wp-admin folder.

The crawl-delay directive

Crawl-delay is an unofficial addition to the usual, and few serps adhere to it. Not less than Google and Yandex don’t use it, with Bing being unclear. In idea, as crawlers could be fairly crawl-hungry, you may attempt the crawl-delay path to gradual them down.

A line just like the one under would instruct these serps to alter how incessantly they’ll request pages in your web site.

crawl-delay: 10

Do take care when utilizing the crawl-delay directive. By setting a crawl delay of ten seconds, you solely enable these serps to entry 8,640 pages a day. This may appear loads for a small web site, nevertheless it isn’t a lot for giant websites. Alternatively, in case you get subsequent to no site visitors from these serps, it could be a great way to avoid wasting bandwidth.

The sitemap directive for XML Sitemaps

Utilizing the sitemap directive, you possibly can inform serps – Bing, Yandex, and Google – the place to search out your XML sitemap. You possibly can, after all, submit your XML sitemaps to every search engine utilizing their webmaster instruments. We strongly suggest you accomplish that as a result of webmaster instruments gives you a ton of details about your web site. When you don’t need to do this, including a sitemap line to your robots.txt is a fast different. Yoast web optimization routinely provides a hyperlink to your sitemap in case you let it generate a robots.txt file. On an present robots.txt file, you possibly can add the rule by hand by way of the file editor within the Instruments part.


Don’t block CSS and JS recordsdata in robots.txt

Since 2015, Google Search Console has warned web site house owners not to block CSS and JS files. We’ve instructed you a similar factor for ages: don’t block CSS and JS recordsdata in your robots.txt. Allow us to clarify why you shouldn’t block these particular recordsdata from Googlebot.

By blocking CSS and JavaScript recordsdata, you’re stopping Google from checking in case your web site works accurately. When you block CSS and JavaScript recordsdata in yourrobots.txt file, Google can’t render your web site as meant. Now, Google can’t perceive your web site, which could end in decrease rankings. Furthermore, even instruments like Ahrefs render internet pages and execute JavaScript. So, don’t block JavaScript in order for you your favourite web optimization instruments to work.

This aligns completely with the overall assumption that Google has turn into extra “human.” Google desires to see your web site like a human customer would, so it might distinguish the primary parts from the extras. Google desires to know if JavaScript enhances the person expertise or ruins it.

Take a look at and repair in Google Search Console

Google helps you discover and repair points together with your robots.txt, as an illustration, within the Web page Indexing part in Google Search Console. Choose the Blocked by robots.txt possibility:

the page indexing dashboard in google search console showing the number of page blocked by robots.ts
Examine Search Console to see which URLs are blocked by your robots.txt

Unblocking blocked sources comes right down to altering your robots.txt file. It’s essential to set that file up in order that it doesn’t disallow Google to entry your web site’s CSS and JavaScript recordsdata anymore. When you’re on WordPress and use Yoast web optimization, you are able to do this directly with our Yoast SEO plugin.

Validate your robots.txt

Numerous instruments will help you validate your robots.txt, however we at all times choose to go to the supply when validating crawl directives. Google has a robots.txt testing tool in its Google Search Console (underneath the ‘Outdated model’ menu), and we’d extremely suggest utilizing that:

a test result of a robots.txt file in the Google testing tool
Testing a robots.txt file in Google Search Console

You’ll want to check your adjustments totally earlier than you place them reside! You wouldn’t be the primary to by chance use robots.txt to dam your total web site and slip into search engine oblivion!

Behind the scenes of a robots.txt parser

In 2019, Google announced they had been making their robots.txt parser open supply. If you wish to get into the nuts and bolts, you possibly can see how their code works (and even use it your self or suggest modifications).


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