In response to the First Impressions Email Marketing Study carried out by Ciceron, solely 39% of manufacturers ship a welcome e-mail. Regardless of that, according to GetResponse, 8 out of 10 individuals will open a welcome e-mail. 

41% of manufacturers didn’t ship a welcome e-mail inside the first 48 hours after a subscriber joined.

And 27% despatched zero emails within the first three weeks.

These welcome e-mail statistics inform a compelling story.

You’ll be able to put numerous effort into your e-mail newsletters and product launch automations. You’ll be able to optimize your topic strains, preheader textual content, microcopy, and buttons. You can also make certain to make use of bulletproof buttons and preserve deliverability excessive.

All of that e-mail optimization is necessary. However if you happen to aren’t sending welcome emails, you’re lacking a chance that blows all of them out of the water.

On this put up:

  • What’s a welcome e-mail?
  • Why is a welcome e-mail necessary?
  • 6 methods to make use of welcome emails (and welcome e-mail greatest practices)
  • What goes into nice welcome emails?
  • 7 welcome e-mail examples

What’s a welcome e-mail?

A welcome e-mail is the primary e-mail {that a} new subscriber sees after they be part of your e-mail record. As a result of it’s the primary e-mail you ship, it’s your greatest likelihood to interact together with your subscribers and present them your distinctive tone of voice.

When somebody provides you their contact data, it’s like a handshake. It’s like they lengthen a hand and say “Good to satisfy you, I’m [name]. I’ve heard rather a lot about you” Your welcome e-mail is you reaching out for a handshake.

a welcome email is like a handshake

You don’t wish to have a weak handshake

It’s your first private, one-to-one impression within the buyer onboarding course of.

That first impression can do numerous various things. You need to use it to extend gross sales, ask for referrals, get shares, level individuals to fascinating content material, assist individuals get probably the most out of a purchase order, or begin a welcome collection that leads as much as a distinct aim.

Even when it’s simply in your e-mail publication and never attempting to get gross sales—your welcome e-mail it an enormous alternative. Make certain it does greater than verify a subscription.

There are numerous confirmation emails on the market that appear to be this:

Bad Welcome Email Example

 I feel I’ll be clicking that unsubscribe button now

Your welcome e-mail doesn’t have to be one among them.

7 welcome e-mail examples

For some welcome e-mail inspiration, listed below are 7 examples of fine welcome emails that I feel do a superb job of illustrating the totally different jobs you’ll be able to ask your welcome e-mail to perform.

7 nice welcome e-mail examples:

  1. Copy Hackers
  2. Headspace
  3. Summer season Tomato
  4. Airbnb
  5. Amazon Echo
  6. The Important Man
  7. Platinum Pores and skin Care

Welcome e-mail instance 1: Copy Hackers

Copy Hackers welcome email

Joanna Wiebe of Copy Hackers is an impressive e-mail copywriter. Whenever you register for her weekly copywriting tutorials, she sends the above welcome e-mail.

This welcome e-mail instance accomplishes a number of issues.

First, it confirms that you’re registered for the tutorials. You need your welcome e-mail to be greater than simply a affirmation e-mail, however it does nonetheless want to verify that folks will get what they requested for.

Second, it takes benefit of excessive engagement. Welcome emails have numerous engagement, so Joanna takes the chance to supply some related content material.

Lastly, figuring out that Joanna is a believer in segmentation, I’d be shocked if she isn’t tagging her subscribers based mostly on which hyperlink they click on. Any data you’ll be able to acquire in your subscribers’ pursuits might be helpful down the road.

Takeaways:

  • Phase. Segmentation doesn’t have to be difficult. Take each alternative to gather details about your viewers.
  • Character. Joanna might have simply dumped hyperlinks. As a substitute, she says “why not make a Nespresso and…” Use your welcome emails to showcase your character.
  • Give worth. The hyperlinks to in style tutorials assist with segmentation, however in addition they ship useful, fascinating content material.

Welcome e-mail instance 2: Headspace

Headspace welcome email

Supply: Headspace by way of Really Good Emails

Headspace is a guided meditation app with a really distinctive model fashion. The lead magnet for Headspace is 10 days of guided meditation, and also you get this e-mail whenever you join it.

Merely put, this can be a strong welcome e-mail to new clients. It’s acquired some design, however it stays clear and clear. The design helps the message as an alternative of overpowering it.

It has a transparent aim and name to motion, trying to attract individuals into the app to begin meditating.

And, decrease down, it clarifies that the reader has 10 days of free meditation, and might want to subscribe to get extra.

Takeaways:

  • Name-to-action. Whenever you want somebody to interact with an app or product, make your welcome e-mail CTA outstanding and clear.
  • Set expectations. The reader will get 10 free days of meditation, and this new buyer e-mail reminds them of that.
  • Reinforce model. Headspace is understood for its doodles and cartoonish fashion. This e-mail highlights that.

Welcome e-mail instance 3: Summer season Tomato

Summer Tomato welcome email

Darya Rose is a neuroscientist (yep, she’s acquired a PhD) who helps individuals drop some weight with out weight-reduction plan. Subscribers get this welcome e-mail after they request her “starter equipment” lead magnet.

I like this e-mail partially due to how easy the lead magnet it.
Darya realized that providing a lead magnet is rather more compelling than asking individuals to subscribe to an e-mail publication. As a substitute of going by an entire lead magnet design course of, she pulled collectively a few of her prime blogs, branded them as a “starter equipment,” and despatched it in an e-mail.

Sensible. Good if you happen to’re low on time and assets.

This type of e-mail can also be good as a result of the lead magnet itself affords individuals useful content material. It’s the primary touchpoint to Summer season Tomato’s model and key differentiator, and subsequent emails on this automation construct on her promise to “drop some weight with out weight-reduction plan.”

Takeaways:

  • Easy lead magnets are okay. If you happen to don’t know tips on how to make a elaborate e-book or video, a easy assortment of assets can do the job.
  • Reinforce model message. “My aim isn’t that will help you for weeks or months. My aim is that will help you for YEARS.” That’s the worth proposition of Summer season Tomato, and Darya states it clearly.
  • Credibility. Darya mentions hundreds of readers, in addition to sharing a chapter from her ebook. At this level, the reader is aware of she has a Ph.D., however these reinforce her credibility.

Welcome e-mail instance 4: Airbnb

Airbnb welcome email

Supply: Airbnb by way of Really Good Emails

Airbnb is well-known as an organization, and this welcome e-mail is an effective instance of one thing that has led to its success.

When you’ve strangers providing to offer one another housing, there’s an actual danger that the visitor expertise will likely be lower than stellar. Airbnb works to stop that by delivering this e-mail after a list is confirmed.

This can be a affirmation e-mail and a welcome e-mail. It confirms {that a} itemizing is submitted, and delivers useful hyperlinks to assist individuals give a greater expertise to their friends—which is healthier for friends, higher for hosts, and higher for Airbnb.

Takeaway: 

  • What’s the aim of your welcome e-mail? Airbnb needs individuals to have an excellent visitor expertise, in order that they assist their hosts with helpful content material.
  • Ship helpful welcome e-mail content material instantly. You’ll be able to customise the content material that you simply ship based mostly on what you recognize about your subscribers. Airbnb would ship a distinct e-mail to a visitor.
  • Use all of the house you’ve. That is each a affirmation e-mail and a welcome e-mail. Who stated affirmation emails have to be boring?

Welcome e-mail instance 5: Amazon Echo

Amazon Echo welcome email

Supply: Amazon by way of Really Good Emails

After I first acquired my Amazon Echo, I used to be excited. It might truly acknowledge my voice and reply my questions!

However finally, I ran out of inquiries to ask. After some fundamentals—What time is it?” “What’s the climate?” “How tall is Kareem Abdul-Jabbar?”—I began to lose curiosity.

In a superb instance of getting individuals to make use of their product, Amazon despatched over this welcome e-mail for brand new clients: an inventory of recent issues I might ask Alexa.

Granted, I nonetheless largely use my Echo within the morning, to verify the time whereas my face is buried in a pillow. However this e-mail helped me notice that I might use it for greater than that.

And, in case you had been questioning, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar is 7’2”.

Takeaways:

  • Know what individuals need. Amazon needs individuals to play with their Echo and is aware of that after some fundamentals (e.g. “What time is it?” “What’s the climate?” “How tall is Kareem Abdul-Jabbar?”) clients will run out of concepts.
  • Give individuals what they need. Amazon sends alongside an inventory of concepts, figuring out that the extra individuals use their Echo, the extra they may prefer it and inform their mates about it (and the extra the sensible house trade has the potential to develop).
  • Combine enterprise and pleasure. “Alexa assist me sleep” is severe. “Alexa inform me a winter joke” isn’t. Humor is underused, however helps individuals connect with your model.

Welcome e-mail instance 6: The Important Man

the essential man welcome email

Peter Nguyen is a males’s fashion coach, who writes at The Essential Man. He helps younger, skilled males develop their very own private fashion with out breaking the financial institution or drowning in garments.

He additionally sends an excellent instance of a segmented welcome e-mail. Do his subscribers wish to have higher dates? Look extra skilled? Or simply look good basically?

By sending three hyperlinks and tagging individuals based mostly on their clicks, he will get the reply instantly—and has the flexibility to ship focused follow-up emails.

Takeaways:

  • Phase! Like Joanna, Peter takes the primary alternative to section his subscribers.
  • Know what segments you appeal to. Discover that Peter has three separate worth propositions. He’s already achieved viewers analysis to determine what his totally different audiences care about.
  • Tease the following e-mail. Constructing anticipation (“Tomorrow I’m going to be sending you…”) can enhance e-mail open charges in your second welcome e-mail.

Welcome e-mail instance 7: Platinum Pores and skin Care

platinum skin care welcome email example

Platinum Pores and skin Care does nice email marketing. What makes Platinum Pores and skin Care totally different from the opposite nice welcome e-mail examples on this record is that they use a quiz as their lead magnet for subscribers.

Platinum skin care quiz

This quiz lets Platinum Pores and skin Care acquire contact data, however it additionally lets them section subscribers earlier than they even get an e-mail.

Does somebody on a skincare website wish to enhance dry pores and skin or battle pimples? It might be both, so Platinum Pores and skin Care makes use of the quiz for segmentation—then instantly follows up with a product advice distinctive to every particular person’s outcomes.

On the similar time, not everybody who completes a web based quiz is able to purchase. This welcome e-mail is the primary in a collection, the place every subscriber will get useful skincare ideas based mostly on their outcomes from the quiz.

It’s a superb method to e-mail segmentation that makes Platinum Pores and skin Care’s welcome e-mail all of the extra highly effective.

Takeaways:

  • Phase! Are you sensing a theme? Platinum Pores and skin Care is a good instance as a result of they really handle to section earlier than the welcome e-mail.
  • Goal your welcome e-mail content material. The welcome e-mail and automatic follow-up e-mail are personalized based mostly on the outcomes of the quiz (and every subscriber’s wants).
  • Don’t be afraid of textual content! It’s necessary that folks know what you stand for. Particularly after going by a high-engagement lead magnet (like a quiz), your subscribers will likely be keen to listen to from you.

Why is a welcome e-mail necessary?

Do welcome emails work? Sure.

Your welcome e-mail is your greatest likelihood to interact new contacts. Other than being your first likelihood to make a superb, personalised impression, a welcome e-mail is your greatest alternative to get individuals to take motion.

New contacts wish to hear from you!

Open charges and clickthrough charges are virtually at all times the best on welcome emails. It’s your greatest likelihood to achieve a brand new contact and get them to interact with you—whether or not meaning studying a weblog put up or on the point of purchase a product.

Right here’s a screenshot from the report for the welcome e-mail from one among my weblog posts.

Welcome Email Results

That’s a click-to-open fee of 90%

An 85% open fee! 77% clickthrough! That’s a click-to-open fee of 90%. I want my gross sales emails acquired that sort of response.

New contacts are the contacts almost certainly to say sure to your name to motion. They’re excited. They’re anticipating you to e-mail them instantly.

If you happen to don’t ship a welcome e-mail, you’re lacking that chance.

Knowledgeable perception: Andy Crestodina on welcome emails

Andy Crestodina

“There’s one e-mail that will get the next open fee than all others: the welcome-to-my-list e-mail.

It’s no shock. The recipient is at their peak curiosity. They simply transformed right into a subscriber, so they’re need your content material and belief your model. Setting this auto-response it a no brainer. Opens and click on by charges are sometimes 2x some other emails you ship.

Think of it as simply being well mannered. When somebody begins listening, you need to say hi there, proper? When somebody asks for extra, give them your greatest. I consider the welcome series as each sensible advertising and marketing and customary courtesy.”

– Andy Crestodina is a advertising and marketing professional, thought chief, and co-founder of Orbit Media Studios. He’s an professional in website positioning, net design, and utilizing information to information advertising and marketing technique.

6 methods to make use of welcome emails (and welcome e-mail greatest practices)

You recognize that your welcome e-mail must have extra data than only a subscription affirmation. However what can you place in a welcome e-mail?
Even as soon as you recognize {that a} welcome e-mail is your greatest likelihood to get engagement out of your new e-mail subscribers, there are different questions that have to be answered.

  • “What ought to I write in my welcome e-mail?”
  • “Ought to I’ve a name to motion?”
  • “How do I do know if my welcome e-mail is working?”

These questions begin to get answered whenever you assume previous the tactic.

What do I imply by that?

As a substitute of pondering “I ought to ship a welcome e-mail as a result of welcome emails get numerous engagement,” ask your self—what worth does a welcome e-mail deliver to what you are promoting?

How are you going to use this device to attain your broader enterprise targets?

Listed below are 6 frequent methods to make use of a welcome e-mail — and a few welcome e-mail greatest practices.

  1. Lead magnet supply
  2. A pitch for a product
  3. Begin a welcome e-mail collection or welcome marketing campaign
  4. Get individuals to make use of your product with onboarding welcome emails
  5. Give individuals useful data
  6. Phase your viewers

1. Lead magnet supply

If you happen to promised to ship a lead magnet, the welcome e-mail is the time to do it.

This may be the best use of a welcome e-mail as a result of individuals are anticipating the lead magnet they had been promised.

I as soon as acquired a beautiful e-mail from a sort new subscriber that learn “Dude, you suck at advertising and marketing. [expletive] you and [expletive] your website. Ship what you say you’ll ship.”

Unbeknownst to me (or, apparently, him), my lead magnet was being delivered to the Promotions tab of Gmail.

He finally apologized—however the lesson is that folks anticipate you to ship in your lead magnets.

pre-built welcome automations

How are you going to ship a lead magnet? An excellent e-mail advertising and marketing or marketing automation service makes lead magnet supply easy. In ActiveCampaign, for instance, we’ve pre-made automation that you should use to ship as many alternative lead magnets as you want.

When you’ve delivered a lead magnet, there’s nonetheless extra you will get out of this primary e-mail. For extra welcome e-mail concepts, learn on.

2. A pitch for a product

Your welcome e-mail is prone to see the best open charges of any e-mail you’ll ever ship. For that motive, it may not be a foul time to pitch a product.

Right here’s an excellent welcome collection instance: On-line enterprise coach Graham Cochrane used to run a welcome e-mail collection that led to a free webinar and gross sales pitch. As he shared on GrowthLab, he was in a position to get an 89% enhance in gross sales by shifting the decision to motion for his webinar instantly after somebody subscribed.

Getting sales with a welcome automation

Supply: GrowthLab

Listed below are the precise steps of Cochrane’s e-mail funnel, as he wrote about them on GrowthLab (on this context, a “carrot” is a lead magnet).

“That is the brand new funnel:

  1. Join carrot (100%)
  2. Taken to a “Thanks” web page, emailed PDF obtain, invited to a webinar
  3. Join a webinar (20%)
  4. Attend webinar (10%)
  5. Get pitched product
  6. Purchase product

$24,759 / month avg.”

(That quantity is in comparison with his earlier common of $13,101 / month).

That is typically a superb play for e-commerce companies. If you recognize that merchandise are associated or regularly purchased collectively, together with a CTA or short-term coupon for associated merchandise might help a buyer change into a repeat buyer.

Jordan Skole made this level throughout an ActiveCampaign live AMA:

“When somebody buys one among my merchandise, that provides me a way of what else they may be inquisitive about. What else do individuals who get the product normally purchase? I can section based mostly on that data to make a focused supply.”

Your welcome e-mail isn’t at all times the best time for a pitch—some individuals will want extra time earlier than they’re keen to purchase. A fast sale can also be harder if you happen to promote high-priced merchandise, the place shopping for cycles are sometimes longer.

Nonetheless, together with a gross sales pitch in your welcome e-mail is completely price testing.

3. Begin a welcome collection or welcome marketing campaign

A welcome series or automated follow-up sequence might help you nurture leads that aren’t prepared to purchase instantly.

An introduction video to the topic of marketing automation

A welcome collection is a straightforward sort of marketing automation. This video, from the free course Getting Started with ActiveCampaign, provides you some good methods to get began with organizing your automations.

One in all my favourite components about Grant Cochrane’s new webinar pitch is that the subscribers that don’t register for his webinar nonetheless undergo his regular welcome collection—so he has two alternatives to transform them.

A welcome e-mail collection can have as many targets as there are varieties of companies.

List of goals for automated follow up sequences

Just a few doable targets for a welcome collection

A service-based enterprise may ship focused welcome content material that builds belief and demonstrates experience. An e-commerce enterprise welcome e-mail can share tricks to get probably the most out of a product. A SaaS enterprise welcome e-mail can attempt to get individuals to click on round of their app. And numerous online businesses use a welcome collection to promote an data product or course.

Knowledgeable perception: Joel Klettke on welcome e-mail subsequent steps

Joel Klettke

Probably the most necessary issues you are able to do in a welcome e-mail is give individuals a transparent image of subsequent steps.

What’s the ONE small step they will take RIGHT NOW to change into a extra profitable consumer? What tiny little ahead movement might assist push the snowball down the hill?

Guarantee that no matter you supply as a subsequent step, it’s simple, attainable, and strikes them towards their “AHA” second of being a consumer or subscriber.

Joel Klettke is a conversion copywriter. He’s the founding father of Business Casual Copywriting and Case Study Buddy

As a result of there are such a lot of potential methods to make use of a welcome e-mail collection, we wrote a wholly separate article on the topic. You’ll be able to learn it right here: 7 Steps to Create Your Best Automated Follow-up Sequence.

4. Get individuals to make use of your product with onboarding welcome emails

If you happen to run a software program firm or have an app, you need individuals to get into utilizing your product as shortly as doable. The quicker they reach their “aha” moment, the extra probably they’re to stay round.

Even if you happen to aren’t in tech, onboarding welcome emails might nonetheless be necessary.

If you happen to run a web based course or a membership website, you recognize that it may be robust to get individuals to stay round. An onboarding collection:

  • Will get individuals to interact together with your product instantly
  • Reduces “evaluation paralysis,” by displaying your clients some fast wins
  • Leads to extra individuals ending your programs (and extra individuals recommending you to mates)

For these causes, an account welcome e-mail typically features a name to motion to deliver readers again into your app or product.

This sort of e-mail is within the record of welcome e-mail examples beneath.

5. Give individuals useful data

Possibly you aren’t promoting something but, otherwise you promote a product/service with a really lengthy shopping for cycle—one that folks aren’t probably to purchase instantly.
Possibly you wish to be sure your clients get probably the most out of a product they’ve bought.

Typically, your aim is to offer your subscribers data. Welcome emails are a superb alternative to ship content material that helps nurture subscribers.

When is it necessary to ship content material in your welcome emails? What welcome e-mail content material are you able to ship?

  • Ship content material associated to the particular lead magnet somebody downloaded
  • Use content material to automate gross sales emails that you’d usually ship by hand
  • For lengthy shopping for cycles, use content material to begin constructing belief with new subscribers

The hyperlinks in these new buyer welcome emails may also be used to section your viewers.

6. Phase your viewers

Typically you’ll be able to inform what introduced a brand new contact to your record based mostly on what lead magnet they downloaded or what web page they subscribed from.

Different instances, whenever you serve a number of audiences, you may not make sure which viewers a brand new contact falls beneath.

What do you do? Ask them to self-segment. You’ll see some examples of those within the emails beneath.

To do that, embody a set of hyperlinks in your welcome e-mail. Supply a set of hyperlinks that tackle totally different ache factors for various audiences. When somebody clicks on a hyperlink, add a tag so you recognize who they’re. You’ll be able to even have this set off a brand new automation.

Segment based on link click

I whipped up this fast instance for example the purpose. On this bare-bones pattern e-mail, I ask individuals to decide on what they’re most inquisitive about: automations, content material advertising and marketing, or branding. Once they click on the hyperlink, I add the related tag.

Email segmentation helps you ship probably the most related content material and affords to your contacts. The earlier you’ll be able to section your e-mail record, the extra alternatives you must ship focused content material.

What goes into nice welcome emails?

To higher create your greatest welcome e-mail in your buyer onboarding move, figuring out what a welcome e-mail can accomplish is an effective begin—however what makes an excellent welcome e-mail nice to start with?

Solely 39% of manufacturers are sending welcome emails. It’s a must to think about that the share of manufacturers sending good welcome emails is even decrease.

Knowledgeable perception: Val Geisler on the perfect welcome emails being welcoming

Val Geisler

“A welcome e-mail ought to do exactly that: welcome your reader. It must be the start of constructing a relationship, not a gross sales pitch or a push in your product.

Take into consideration whenever you buy groceries and there’s somebody there greeting you proper whenever you stroll within the retailer. If they are saying “Hello! We’re having a sale and I feel you’d look nice on this shirt and it’s 50% off so I’ll simply put it in a becoming room for you okay?” it’s a jarring expertise. You simply walked into the shop!

Distinction that with the identical salesperson saying “Hey, welcome! It’s fairly scorching on the market right now, isn’t it? I’m Miranda, by the best way. I’m right here if you happen to want something as you go searching.” Fairly the totally different expertise. The second welcome makes you are feeling seen and human, the primary makes you are feeling like a strolling pockets.

Your welcome emails ought to intention to make your readers really feel seen and human too. Lead with a heat welcome and save the gross sales for in a while in your buyer onboarding.”

– Val Geisler has been known as an e-mail geek, a copywriter, a marketer, and an actual sport changer (however you’ll be able to simply name her Val). You’ll be able to be taught extra about e-mail copywriting and e-mail advertising and marketing technique on her website

Listed below are some issues to bear in mind.

Lovely welcome e-mail design is much less necessary than a usable welcome e-mail design

No, I’m not saying you need to ship ugly emails. However too typically, companies spend numerous time on welcome email templates and design—and never almost sufficient time deciding what truly goes of their welcome emails.

Think about your higher-level targets. What motion would you like individuals to take? What would you like individuals to really feel?

It’s possible you’ll discover that an attractive welcome e-mail design is necessary to your aim. You might also discover that text-based emails are completely sufficient to perform your targets.

E-mail topic strains, from names, and preheader textual content matter

As soon as you recognize what welcome e-mail content material you wish to ship, your total message, and your targets—then you’ll be able to fear about particulars like welcome e-mail topic strains and names.

And so they’re price worrying about. Open charges for welcome emails are normally excessive, which is nice. However a superb topic line might help you attain much more individuals. It may possibly even be so compelling that it provides you a lift to your clickthrough fee.

Listed below are some fast e-mail greatest practices that will help you enhance open charges:

Right here’s an instance from Andy Crestodina of Orbit Media (who additionally has a superb weblog put up on tips on how to increase email open rates):

increase email open rates factors

The e-mail comes from an individual. I just like the inclusion of an organization identify because it reminds the recipient why they’re getting the e-mail. There’s social proof within the headline, and the preheader textual content isn’t gibberish.

bad preheader text

For comparability, right here’s an e-mail the place the preheader textual content might use some work.

Nice preheader textual content builds curiosity and entices individuals to click on. If you happen to don’t consciously replace your preheader textual content, it is going to typically default to displaying the start of your e-mail.

Clear welcome e-mail CTAs

In contrast to numerous emails, your welcome e-mail doesn’t essentially must have just one call-to-action (CTA). (It ought to most likely have no less than one although.)

Nevertheless it does must have one aim.

Whether or not that aim is to get individuals to self-segment, entice individuals again into your app, promote a associated product, or present helpful data, clear CTAs will show you how to enhance conversions and observe success.

Conclusion: write an excellent welcome e-mail

To ship an excellent welcome e-mail, you should have an excellent understanding of your personal targets and your subscribers’ wants.

What can a welcome e-mail do for you?

  • A welcome e-mail can double as a affirmation e-mail
  • It may possibly ship focused, helpful content material
  • It helps you to section your viewers
  • You need to use it to pitch your merchandise
  • It reinforces your model and tone of voice (use these email templates to remain on model!)

Whenever you perceive your targets, deal with offering worth, and deal with e-mail advertising and marketing fundamentals, you’ll be able to create a welcome e-mail that works tougher than a easy affirmation.

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